The SYMBIOTIC CITIES NETWORK website is no longer being updated.

The team that created this site is now producing the


Website and Podcast



The Twenty First-Century Imperative Podcast series will explore the approaches and insights of scientists, planners, designers, engineers,politicians, business entrepreneurs, and other successful change-makers, who are finding smart, effective ways to meet the three critical challenges of the Twenty-First Century Imperative:

How will we continue to live on our planet without destroying our biosphere?

How will we repair and regenerate the environmental damage we have already caused?

How will we adapt to the escalating impacts of climate change?

Each episode will feature an interview with an individual who we think you will find not only inspiring, but also very relevant to helping you answer the question: “what can I do to address the Twenty-First Century Imperative?"



Symbiotic Cities, inventing the future

Designing for a symbiotic, regenerative relationship with our environment... 

The Symbiotic Cities Network is an open network of urban planners, architects, engineers, ecologists and economists exploring how the design of our cities could shift our relationship with the environment from being pathologically parasitic to being Ecologically beneficial. See more...



Symbiotic Cities Blog

January 2014

Key Assumptions

Jan 12, 2014 9:00 AM
by Craig Applegath  |  Add Comment

When I am giving public presentations about Symbiotic Cities I am often asked about the assumptions we have made in developing the ideas that are set out in this website. This is a very important question, because, clearly, the assumptions we have made will determine both the reasonableness and the potential for implementation of the ideas. We have clearly set out these assumptions in the introduction to the Transitions section of the site, but they bear repeating again in response to our readers queries. There are four key assumptions as follows: 

1.  History is not pre-determined:  Our civiliztion is not necessarily locked into doing things the way we are doing them now, nor into how we have done things in the past. If we were, then there would indeed be no hope and no viable future! We do not believe in a pre-determined, Hegelian path for history, and do not think that societies and civiliztions move in pre-determined cycles, rising and then falling in some regular fashion. Instead, we think that, as Niall Ferguson notes in his book Civiliztion - The West and the Rest, civilizations "...operate somewhere between oder and disorder - on the 'edge of chaos' in the phrase of computer scientist Chritopher Langton. Such systems can appear to operate quite stably for some time, apparrently in equilibrium, in reality constantly adapting. But there comes a moment when they 'go critical'. A slight perturbation can set off a 'phase transition' from a benign equilibrium to a crisis..."[page 299-230] It is therefore our job as a species to find a more successful course for our future, and the means of implementing it.

2.  Our problems are not caused by "others":  We do not believe that our poblems are caused by "others" (other races, other cultures, other nations, other political parties). Although it is often easy to blame others for our problems, in reality, we think that the most difficult problems we face are the result of our deep-seated human nature that manifests itself in both positive and negative ways. Moreover, we think that the above described transformations can only be successful if we find ways to implement them that take into account the realities of our human nature. The implementation of these transformations, then, must appear "reasonable" from a great many perspectives - which will indeed be one of the great challenges facing us in implementing these transformations.

3.  The symbiotic transformations must be rational and based on facts and sound science:  We think that, even though the transformations must be understood as relevant in many cultural contexts, they must nevertheless be entirely rational, logical and based on sound science. We are entering an era where our species' future success will very much depend on our ability to use our now vast understanding of the natural and physical world in creative and effective ways, but also an era that will, by the very nature of some of the future shocks and stresses we face, make it much more difficult to escape the counter-productive behaviours associated with the irrational side of human nature that is much amplified during times of stress. 

4.  The symbiotic transformations must be individually effective AND mutually supportive and reinforcing:  We think that in order to be implemented, these transformations must be effective in and of themselves, and not require other tranformations to be implemented as precursors. It should be noted here, however, the implementation of multiple transformations will have synergies and positive feedbacks that individual transformatiosn may not have on their own. 

Add Comment



Facebook Network Updates

Network News Updates

Network Tweets

#SymbioticCities Related